The Apocalypse Of Zephaniah, aft 100 B.C. & bef A.D. 70
— from James H. Charlesworth,
The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha
(Doubleday & Co., Inc., Garden City, New York, 1983)
scene in the fifth heaven
seer’s vision of a soul in torment
scene in a broad place
dealing with burial
from above the seer’s city
angels from Mount Seir
angels carry off the souls of ungodly men
accuser and the angel Eremiel in Hades
Hades (two pages missing)
1st trumpet: triumph & visitation of the righteous
2nd trumpet: opening of heaven & souls in torment
intercession of the saints for those in torment
trumpet: the coming wrath of God
intercession of the saints for those in torment
Clement, Stromata 5.11.77
The scene in the fifth heaven.
A And a spirit took me and brought me up into the fifth heaven.
And I saw angels who are called “lords.”
And the diadem was set upon them in the Holy Spirit,
and the throne of each of them was sevenfold more (brilliant) than the
light of the rising sun.
(And they were dwelling in the temples of salvation and singing hymns to
the ineffable God.)
The seer’s vision of a soul in torment.
B1I saw a soul which five thousand angels punished and
2They took it to the East and they brought it to the West.
They beat its … they gave it a hundred … lashes for each one daily.
3I was afraid and I cast myself upon my face so that my
4The angel helped me.
He said unto me, “Be strong, O one who will triumph,
and prevail so that thou wilt triumph over the accuser and thou wilt
come up from Hades.”
5And after I arose I said, “Who is this whom they are
6He said unto me, “This is a soul which was found in its
And before it attained to repenting it was visited, and taken out of its
7Truly, I, Zephaniah, saw these things in my vision.
The scene in a broad place.
8And the angel of the Lord went with me.
I saw a great broad place, thousands of thousands surrounded it on its
left side and myriads of myriads on its right side.
The form of each one was different.
9Their hair was loose like that belonging to women.
Their teeth were like the teeth of …
Fragment dealing with burial.
11 … dead. We will bury him like any man. 2Whenever he dies, we will carry him out playing the cithera
before him and chanting psalms and odes over his body.
Scenes from above the seer’s city.
21Now I went with the angel of the Lord, and he took
me up (over) all my city.
There was nothing before my eyes.
2Then I saw two men walking together on one road.
I watched them as they talked.
3And, moreover, I also saw two women grinding together at a
And I watched them as they talked.
4And I also saw two upon a bed, each one of them acting for
their (mutual) … upon a bed. 5And I saw the whole inhabited world hanging like a drop of
which is suspended from a bucket when it comes up from a well.
6I said unto the angel of the Lord.
“Then does not darkness or night exist in this place?”
7He said unto me, “No, because darkness existeth not in that
where the righteous and the saints are, but rather they always exist in
8And I saw all the souls of men as they existed in
punishment. 9And I cried out to the Lord Almighty,
“O God, if Thou remainest with the saints,
Thou (certainly) hast compassion on behalf of the world and the souls
which are in this punishment.”
Recording angels from Mount Seir.
3 1The angel of the Lord said unto me,
“Come, let me show thee the place of righteousness.”
2And he took me up upon Mount Seir and he showed me three
as two angels walked with them rejoicing and exulting over them.
3I said to the angel, “Of what sort are these?”
4He said to me, “These are the three sons of Joatham, the
who neither kept the commandment of their father nor observed the
ordinances of the Lord.”
5Then I saw two other angels weeping over the three sons
of Joatham, the priest. 6I said, “O angel, who are these?”
He said, “These are the angels of the Lord Almighty.
They write down all the good deeds of the righteous upon their scrolls
as they watch at the gate of heaven.”
7And I take them from their hands and bring them up before
the Lord Almighty;
He writeth their name in the Book of the Living. 8Also the angels of the accuser who is upon the earth,
they also write down all the sins of men upon their scrolls. 9They also sit at the gate of heaven.
They tell the accuser and he writeth them upon his scroll so that he
might accuse them
when they come out of the world (and go) down there.”
4 1Then I walked with the angel of the Lord.
I looked before me and I saw a place there.
2Thousands of thousands and myriads of myriads of angels
entered through it.
3Their faces were like a leopard, their tusks being outside
their mouth like wild boars.
4Their eyes were mixed with blood.
Their hair was loose like the hair of women, and fiery scourges were in
5When I saw them, I was afraid.
I said unto that angel who walked with me, “Of what sort are these?”
6He said unto me, “These are the servants of all creation who
come to the souls of ungodly men
and bring them and leave them in this place.
7They spend three days going around with them in the air
before they bring them
and cast them into their eternal punishment.”
8I said, “I beseech thee, O Lord, give them not authority
to come to me.”
9The angel said, “Fear not.
I will not permit them to come to thee because thou art pure before the
I will not permit them to come to thee because the Lord Almighty sent me
because <thou> are pure before him.”
10Then he beckoned to them, and they withdrew themselves and
they ran from me.
5 1But I went with the angel of the Lord, and I looked
in front of me and I saw gates.
2Then when I approached them I discovered that they were
3The angel touched them and they opened before him.
I entered with him and found its whole square like a beautiful city, and
I walked in its midst.
4Then the angel of the Lord transformed himself beside me in
5Now I looked at them, and I discovered that they were
bronze gates and bronze bolts and iron bars.
6Now my mouth was shut therein.
I beheld the bronze gates in front of me as fire was being cast forth
for about fifty stadia.
61Again I turned back and walked, and I saw a great
2But I thought that it was a sea of water.
I discovered that it was entirely a sea of flame like a slime
which casteth forth much flame and whose waves burn sulfur and bitumen.
3They began to approach me.
4Then I thought that the Lord Almighty had come to visit
5Then when I saw, I fell upon my face before him in order
that I might worship him.
6I was very much afraid, and I entreated him that he might
save me from this distress.
7I cried out, saying, “Eloe, Lord, Adonai, Sabaoth.
I beseech Thee to save me from this distress because it hath befallen
8In that same instant I stood up, and I saw a great angel
His hair was spread out like that of lionesses’.
His teeth were outside his mouth like a bear.
His hair was spread out like women’s.
His body was like the serpent’s when he wished to swallow me.
9And when I saw him, I was afraid of him so that all the
parts of my body were loosened and I fell upon my face.
10I was unable to stand, and I prayed before the Lord
“Thou wilt save me from this distress.
Thou art the one who saved Israel from the hand of Pharaoh, the king of
Thou saved Susanna from the hand of the elders of injustice.
Thou saved the three holy men, Shadrach, Meshach, Abednego, from the
furnace of burning fire.
I beg you to save me from this distress.”
11Then I arose and stood,
and I saw a great angel standing before me with his face shining like
the rays of the sun in its glory
since his face is like that which is perfected in its glory.
12And he was girded as if a golden girdle were upon his
His feet were like bronze which is melted in a fire.
13And when I saw him, I rejoiced, for I thought that the Lord
Almighty had come to visit me.
14I fell upon my face, and I worshiped him.
15He said to me, “Take heed. Worship me not.
I am not the Lord Almighty, but am the great angel, Eremiel,
who is over the abyss and Hades,
the one in which all of the souls are imprisoned from the end of the
which came upon the earth, until this day.”
16Then I inquired of the angel,
“What is the place to which I have come?”
He said to me, “It is Hades.”
17Then I asked him, “Who is the great angel who stands thus,
whom I saw?”
He said, “This is the one who accuses men in the presence of the Lord.”
71Then I looked, and I saw him with a scroll in his
He began to unroll it.
2Now after he had spread it out, I read it in my (own)
I found that all my sins which I had done were written in it,
those which I had done from my youth until this day.
3They were all written upon that scroll of mine without there
being a false word in them.
4If I did not go to visit a sick man or a widow, I found it
written down as a shortcoming upon my manuscript.
5If I did not visit an orphan, it was found written down as a
shortcoming on my scroll.
6A day on which I did not fast (or) pray in the time of
prayer I found written down as a failing upon my scroll.
7And a day when I did not turn to the sons of Israel —
since it is a shortcoming — I found written down upon my scroll
8so that I threw myself upon my face and prayed before the
“May thy mercy reach me and may thou wipe out my scroll
because Thy mercy hath come to be in every place and hath filled every
9Then I arose and stood, and I saw a great angel before me
saying to me,
“Triumph, prevail because thou hast prevailed and hast triumphed over
and thou hast come up from Hades and the abyss.
Thou wilt now cross over the crossing place.”
10Again he brought another scroll which was written by
11He began to unroll it, and I read it, and found it written
in my (own) language …
two pages missing (In the missing pages the author
probably discussed the content of the second scroll,
which should have recorded the good deeds of the seer.
If the missing material is parallel to the preceding section, the
reading of the scroll would be followed by a prayer
— possibly a prayer of thanksgiving —
and a pronouncement of triumph by a great angel.
That would be followed by preparations for crossing over the river in a
journey out of Hades.
The section that follows begins after the arrival of a boat.)
8 … 1They helped me and set me on that boat.
2Thousands of thousands and myriads of myriads of angels gave
praise before me.
3I, myself, put on an angelic garment.
I saw all of those angels praying.
4I, myself, prayed together with them.
5I knew their language, which they spoke with me.
6Now, moreover, my sons, this is the trial
because it is necessary that the good and the evil be weighed in a
91Then a great angel came forth having a golden
trumpet in his hand,
and he blew it three times over my head, saying, “Be courageous!
O one who hath triumphed. Prevail! O one who hath prevailed.
For thou hast triumphed over the accuser, and thou hast escaped from the
abyss and Hades.
2Thou wilt now cross over the crossing place.
For thy name is written in the Book of the Living.”
3I wanted to embrace him, (but) I was unable to embrace the
because his glory is great.
4Then he ran to all the righteous ones,
namely, Abraham and Isaac and Jacob and Enoch and Elijah and David.
5He spoke with them as friend to friend speaking one with
101Then the great angel came to me with the golden
trumpet in his hand,
and he blew it up unto heaven.
2Heaven opened from the place where the sun rises to where it
from the north to the south.
3I saw the sea which I had seen at the bottom of Hades.
Its waves came up to the clouds.
4I saw all the souls sinking in it.
I saw some whose hands were bound to their neck, with their hands and
feet being fettered.
5I said, “Who are these?”
He said unto me, “These are the ones who were bribed
and they were given gold and silver until the souls of men were led
6And I saw others covered with mats of fire.
7I said, “Who are these?”
He said unto me, “These are the ones who give money at interest,
and they receive interest for interest.”
8And I also saw some blind ones crying out.
And I was amazed when I saw all these works of God.
9I said, “Who are these?”
He said unto me, “These are catechumens who heard the word of God,
but they were not perfected in the work which they heard.”
10And I said unto him, “Then have they not repentance here?”
He said, “Yes,”
11I said, “How long?”
He said unto me, “Until the day when the Lord will judge.”
12And I saw others with their hair on them.
13I said, “Then there is hair and body in this place?”
14He said, “Yes, the Lord gives body and hair to them as he
111And I also saw multitudes. He brought them forth.
2As they looked at all of the torments they called out,
praying before the Lord Almighty, saying,
“We pray unto Thee on account of those who are in all these torments so
that Thou might have mercy on all of them.”
3And when I saw them, I said to the angel who spoke with me,
“<Who are these?>”
4He said, “These who beseech the Lord are Abraham and Isaac
5Then at a certain hour daily they come forth with the great
He soundeth a trumpet up unto heaven and another soundeth upon the
6All the righteous hear the sound.
They come running, praying to the Lord Almighty daily on behalf of these
who are in all these torments.”
121And again the great angel cometh forth with the
golden trumpet in his hand blowing over the earth.
2They hear (it) from the place of the sunrise to the place of
the sunset and from the southern regions to the northern regions.
3And again he blows (it) up unto heaven and its sound is
4I said, “O Lord, why left thou me not until I saw them all?”
5He said unto me, “I have not authority to show them unto
until the Lord Almighty riseth up in his wrath to destroy the earth and
the heavens. 6They will see and be disturbed, and they will all cry out,
‘All flesh which is ascribed to Thee we will give unto Thee on the day
of the Lord.’
7Who will stand in His presence when He riseth in His wrath
<to destroy> the earth <and the heavens?>
8Every tree which groweth upon the earth will be plucked up
with its roots and fall down.
And every high tower and the birds which fly will fall … ”
four pages missing